Bash script to loop through values in a file with space as a separator

Lets say we have a file with list of IPs that are space separated and you want to read each of the values to pass to a loop to perform an operation. Here is an example file with IP Addresses separated  by a space:

cat ips.txt

Now, lets say you want to loop through these IPs and run a ping command against each of them.


# IFS is an internal bash variable. Here, we set its value as space.
IFS=$" "
# Read the file "ips.txt" and store the list of values to a variable "ips"
ips="$(cat ips.txt)"

# Run the following loop which will loop through each of the ips and run a ping test
for ip in $ips; do ping -c 1 $ip; done
# Unset the IFS variable so that it wont mess with the reset of the script
unset IFS

-Running this loop, will loop through the list of IP addresses and perform a ping.

PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.660 ms

--- ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.660/0.660/0.660/0.000 ms
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.108 ms

--- ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.108/0.108/0.108/0.000 ms

Hope this helps!

Happy scripting folks! 🙂

Source/References: Link

Run bash script from a Perl script

To run a bash script (Example: from inside a perl script, you could use the following syntax:

system("sh", "")

Note: Here, once the bash script completes execution it will continue with the execution of the perl script.


Perl Script:
Bash Script:

Below is a perl script  “” which calls an external bash script “”.

use strict;
use warnings;

print "Running parent perl script. \n";
print "Starting to call external bash script\n";

# Sample Argument to be passed to the bash script
my $my_arg = "ARG1";

# With arguments - pass them inside quotes seperated by commas 
system("sh", "","$my_arg");

print "Back to parent perl script\n";

Below is the sample “” which prints the variable.

echo "---Start of Bash script---"

echo "Argument from Perl script is" $a

To test, execute the perl script:




How to fix print_req_error: I/O error, dev fd0, sector 0 error

After a fresh install of Ubuntu, my terminal was being flooded with “print_req_error: I/O error, dev fd0, sector 0” error.

dev fd0

This is because, your kernel thinks you have a floppy disk fd0, but cant find one. To fix this issue, you can run the following in your terminal:

sudo rmmod floppy
echo "blacklist floppy" | tee /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-floppy.conf
sudo dpkg-reconfigure initramfs-tools

Misc: If you are deploying a new virtual machine, you can avoid this issue by deleting the Floppy Disk drive.

Source: StackOverflow

View progress when using dd command

While using “dd”, by default it does not show the progress nor status of the transfer. However, you could use the flag “status=progress” to show the status/progress of the transfer. Here is a screenshot:

This flag is available in the newer version of dd. Here are the CLI outputs for the text ninjas:

$ sudo dd if=archlinux-2019.06.01-x86_64.iso bs=4M of=/dev/sdd status=progress oflag=sync
641728512 bytes (642 MB, 612 MiB) copied, 16 s, 39.1 MB/s
153+1 records in
153+1 records out
643825664 bytes (644 MB, 614 MiB) copied, 16.4601 s, 39.1 MB/s

PS: Use dd (data duplicator) with caution. ‘ddis also known as disk destroyer  in an alternate universe.


Check partition information in Linux

To show currently mounted partition in human readable format, use:

df -h

df -h sample output screenshot

Another way to check partition information using parted.

sudo parted /dev/sda print

parted sample output screenshot

Here, we can see that the disk size is 120GB along with the partition information.

To view the list of partitions using fdisk, use:

fdisk -l

To view the list of block devices:


Hope this helps! Cheers 🙂

How to pass arguments to an alias in bash

Lets look at passing arguments to an alias by looking at an example.

The below command will open in a new tab in firefox.

firefox --new-window

Lets say, I want to create an alias but I want to pass the URL as a parameter to the alias.

For example, if I run the following command in the terminal, it should look at the first argument (which is the URL) and open it in a newtab in firefox.


To achieve this, you can do the following:

Edit your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile using your favorite editor.

vim ~/.bashrc

Create a function inside the ~/.bashrc  with the following content. [Copy/paste the below inside your bashrc]

alias ff='function _ff()
firefox --new-window $1

Here, $1 is the first argument.

Once you save and close the bashrc file, you can source your bashrc for changes to take affect.

source ~/.bashrc

Now, if you enter the following command in the terminal, it will take “” which is the 1st parameter and open it in a new tab in firefox.


Hope this helps. If you like my content, do share and subscribe for more content.

Source: StackOverFlow

How to install AWS CLI in Linux + Auto command completion

This is a guide on how to install aws cli utlity in Linux along with screenshots.


– Linux.
– Python 2.6.5 or higher.

[Tested on Linux Mint with bash shell. should work on Ubuntu as well.]

Update your system and its packages:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

Install Pip:

sudo apt install python-pip -y
sudo pip install --upgrade pip

Install the following modules:

sudo pip install setuptools
sudo pip install wheel

Install AWS CLI:

sudo pip install awscli

To verify that the installation went well, you can run the following command.

aws --version

If the output shows the aws version, then you are all set.

Enable AWS commands Auto completion:

-To enable auto completion of sub commands, run the following to check where your “aws” and “aws_completer” are located.

which aws
which aws_completer

-Copy the output of “which aws_completer”. This would the path.

For example, if the output of “which aws_completer” was “/usr/local/bin/aws_completer”, then enter the following:

complete -C '/usr/local/bin/aws_completer' aws

Heres a screenshot reference:

setup aws awscli aws_completer setup for bash

Verify if AWS command auto completion works:

-Run the following command and press press TAB on your keyboard after typing “ec” and it should give you the possible options:

aws ec

aws awscli autocompletion installation on linux mint

Add path to your .bashrc or .bash_profile:

To make the changes persistant for aws command completion, you can add the following to your “.bashrc” or “.bash_profile.

echo "complete -C ‘/usr/local/bin/aws_completer’ aws" >> ~/.bashrc

Hope this helps! 🙂


Tmux not displaying bash prompt colors

Here is a screenshot of my terminal when I open tmux:

tmux PS1 prompt before

Note: Here, my shell displays my [email protected] but it does not display it in colors  🙁

To make tmux read your bash colors, edit your tmux configuration file:

vim ~/.tmux.conf

Add the following line to the tmux config file:

set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"

Exit and save the file. Close and re-open tmux.

Now, when you open tmux you should be able to get your regular bash prompt colors. Here is a screenshot after re-opening tmux:


tmux $PS1 bash prompt color after modying tmux.conf

Hope this helps! Cheers!


Source: Link

How to get real time currency exchange rates in your Linux terminal

This a tutorial on how to get real time currency exchange rates directly from your Linux terminal (+ lots of screenshots).


-A computer (  *facepalm* 😛 )
-Any Linux/Windows machine with curl installed.
-Free account with

We will be using the “curl” utility to perform the API requests which usually comes pre-installed in most Linux systems.

In case, yours does not have it installed, you can install it using the following:

[You can run “apt install curl” for Ubuntu based systems, or “yum install curl” for RHEL/CentOS/Fedora based systems or “dnf install curl” for newer Fedora systems.]

Step 1: Sign up for a free account in openexchange. You can use the below link:

I would suggest to create an account with a new password that you have never used before.

[Note: The free account has restrictions but should be sufficient to get latest conversion rates with base currency set as USD. With the free account we cannot change the base currency. This means with the free account you can translate 1USD to any other currency. I will create a different tutorial describing another method to get ]

Step 2: Get your APP ID

-Once you sign up for the account, you would receive an email with a verification email which will have your “APP ID”. Below is a screenshot:

APP ID for currency conversion

You would need to get this ID when performing the API call.

-Alternatively, once you have signed up you get your API key once you login to your account. Below is a screenshot:

API ID / API key from account to be used for getting currency exchange rates

Step 3: Get exchange rates:

-Open your terminal and run the following command:

curl -X GET

Enter your app ID after “=”. For example, if your APP ID is 1234, them you would run the following:

curl -X GET

Below is a sample output which displays the different currencies and its conversion values.

currency exchange rates in Linux terminal using API

You would notice the output is in JSON format which has values in keypairs. (For example: the “currency name”:  “value”.)

The data that is pulled is in realtime and it also displays the “timestamp” for which the currency converstions are in linux EPOC time.

Additional Information:

To know the current EPOC time in your system, you can command “date +%s” in your terminal. This is the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

For simplicity, If you are looking to convert USD to a particular currency, you can simply grep the output with the currency you need to convert to.

For example: If you convert 1 USD to INR, you can simply grep the currency name to filter out the output.

curl -s -X GET | grep INR

Below is a screenshot of the outputs.

Output for filtered currency rates in Linux terminal. USD to INR and USD CAD currency exchange rates example outputs.


Thats it folks! Hope this helps! If you liked this tutorial, leave a comment down below and follow to get future updates ! 🙂

How to check if a partition is primary in CentOS+Screenshots

This is a guide on how to check if a partition is primary in centos or not? Use the following command:

# parted /dev/sda print

parted /dev/sda print centos


# cfdisk /dev/sda

centos cfdisk sample output

As shown above, the field under “Part Type” would suggest if that partition is Primary/Secondary.

To exit out of the cfdisk menu, use your arrow keys and move the selection to “Quit” and hit Enter in your keyboard.

Source: Link

As always stay Happy! Happy Blogging! 🙂